Lesson 2 of 8
In Progress


Jimmy October 26, 2021

OM is broadly defined as inflammation of the inner ear due to proliferation of bacteria and virus.

It is a continuum of a disease in that it is a consequence of an infection to the upper respiratory tract causing changes to the nasopharyngeal mucosa and subsequent Eustachian Tube dysfunction. 

Viral Causes of OM

  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
  • Rhinovirus
  • Adenovirus
  • Coronavirus
  • Bocavirus
  • Influenza Virus
  • Parainfluenza Virus
  • Enterovirus
  • Human Metapneumovirus

Bacterial causes of OM

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Nontypeable Haemophilus influenza 
    • Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis 
    • Streptococcus pyogenes 
  • Mycoplasma spp.
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis 
  • Chlamydia trachomatis 

The use of conjugate pneumococcal vaccine has decreased the number of episodes of OM associated with S. pneumoniae but a profound increased in incidence from H. influenza and M. cattarrhalis has been seen.

Viral and Bacterial Co-infection