The incidence of early seizures after intracerebral hemorrhage reaches 30% when subclinical seizures are diagnosed by continuous EEG. Current guidelines do not recommend prophylactic antiseizure treatment in this setting
To assess whether prophylactic levetiracetam would reduce the risk of acute seizures in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage
Parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, investigator-led, phase 3 trial in three hospitals in France.
Study Intervention & Comparison
Levetiracetam 500mg IV q12h vs matching placebo
A clinical or electrographic seizure occurred in the first 72 hr in 3 (16%) patients in the levetiracetam group vs 10 (43%) in the placebo group (OR 0.16, p=0.043). Of note, all seizures recorded in this time period were electrographic
Six seizures were recorded on cEEG monitoring in the levetiracetam group vs 158 in the placebo group (p=0.0021)
Median duration of seizure on cEEG was shorter in levetiracetam group (67 sec vs 780 sec, p=0.028)
One patient in the placebo group had an early clinical seizure (between 72 hr and 30 days) vs none in the levetiracetam group (p>0.99)
Levetiracetam might be effective in preventing acute seizures in intracerebral hemorrhage, but larger studies are needed to determine whether seizure prophylaxis improves functional outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.
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