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A Review of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) by George T. Abdallah, PharmD, BCCCP, BCCP

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  • Direct Injury → Regional consolidation from destruction of alveolar architecture
  • Indirect Injury → Pulmonary vascular congestion, interstitial edema and less severe alveolar involvement
  • Characterized by systemic inflammation:
    • Activation of complement and coagulation systems
    • Stimulation of inflammatory cells
    • Release of proinflammatory mediators
    • Sequestration of neutrophils in microvasculature
    • Endothelial and epithelial disruption
  • Failure of hypoxic vasoconstriction resulting in severe hypoxemia