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Lesson 2 of2
In Progress

Rabbit Hole: Advanced Trauma Life Support

Jimmy September 5, 2021

Guidelines

●    Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

●    Joint Trauma System.  The Department of Defense Center of Excellence for Trauma

●    Western Trauma Association Algorithms

●    American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Program: Best Practices Guidelines for Acute Pain Management in Trauma Patients

●    American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program:  Best Practices Guidelines for Imaging 

●    American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program:  Best Practices in the Management of Orthopedic Trauma

●    American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program:  Massive Transfusion in Trauma Guidelines

●    American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program: Geriatric Trauma Management Guidelines

●    Center for Disease Control: Guidelines for Field Triage of Injured Patients; Recommendations of the National Expert Panel on Field Triage 2011

●    World Health Organization Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care

●     Guidelines for the Management of Severe TBI, 4th Ed.


Primary Literature

Tranexamic Acid

●    Grassin-Delyle S, Shakur-Still H, Picetti R, Frimley L, Jarman H, Davenport R, McGuinness W, Moss P, Pott J, Tai N, Lamy E, Urien S, Prowse D, Thayne A, Gilliam C, Pynn H, Roberts I. Pharmacokinetics of intramuscular tranexamic acid in bleeding traum

●    Almuwallad A, Cole E, Ross J, Perkins Z, Davenport R. The impact of prehospital TXA on mortality among bleeding trauma patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2021 May 1;90(5):901-907. doi: 10.1097/TA.00000000000031

●    Ma H, Wang H, Long X, Xu Z, Chen X, Li M, He T, Wang W, Liu L, Liu X. Early intravenous tranexamic acid intervention reduces post-traumatic hidden blood loss in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture: a randomized controlled trial. J Orthop

●    Safari H, Farrahi P, Rasras S, Marandi HJ, Zeinali M. Effect of Intravenous Tranexamic Acid on Intracerebral Brain Hemorrhage in Traumatic Brain Injury. Turk Neurosurg. 2021;31(2):223-227. doi: 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.30774-20.4. PMID: 33624275.

●    Lawati KA, Sharif S, Maqbali SA, Rimawi HA, Petrosoniak A, Belley-Cote EP, Sharma SV, Morgenstern J, Fernando SM, Owen JJ, Zeller M, Quinlan D, Alhazzani W, Rochwerg B. Efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in acute traumatic brain injury: a systema

●    Rowell SE, Meier EN, McKnight B, Kannas D, May S, Sheehan K, Bulger EM, Idris AH, Christenson J, Morrison LJ, Frascone RJ, Bosarge PL, Colella MR, Johannigman J, Cotton BA, Callum J, McMullan J, Dries DJ, Tibbs B, Richmond NJ, Weisfeldt ML, Tallon JM

●    Williams J, Roberts I, Shakur-Still H, Lecky FE, Chaudhri R, Miners A. Cost-effectiveness analysis of tranexamic acid for the treatment of traumatic brain injury, based on the results of the CRASH-3 randomised trial: a decision modelling approach. BM

●    July J, Pranata R. Tranexamic acid is associated with reduced mortality, hemorrhagic expansion, and vascular occlusive events in traumatic brain injury – meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Neurol. 2020 Apr 6;20(1):119. doi: 10.1186/s1

●    Ageron FX, Gayet-Ageron A, Ker K, Coats TJ, Shakur-Still H, Roberts I; Antifibrinolytics Trials Collaboration. Effect of tranexamic acid by baseline risk of death in acute bleeding patients: a meta-analysis of individual patient-level data from 28 33

●    CRASH-3 Intracranial Bleeding Mechanistic Study Collaborators. Tranexamic acid in traumatic brain injury: an explanatory study nested within the CRASH-3 trial. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2021 Feb;47(1):261-268. doi: 10.1007/s00068-020-01316-1. Epub 202

●    CRASH-3 trial collaborators. Effects of tranexamic acid on death, disability, vascular occlusive events and other morbidities in patients with acute traumatic brain injury (CRASH-3): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2019 Nov 9;394(1021

●    Nishijima DK, Kuppermann N, Roberts I, VanBuren JM, Tancredi DJ. The Effect of Tranexamic Acid on Functional Outcomes: An Exploratory Analysis of the CRASH-2 Randomized Controlled Trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2019 Jul;74(1):79-87. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed

●    Stein P, Studt JD, Albrecht R, Müller S, von Ow D, Fischer S, Seifert B, Mariotti S, Spahn DR, Theusinger OM. The Impact of Prehospital Tranexamic Acid on Blood Coagulation in Trauma Patients. Anesth Analg. 2018 Feb;126(2):522-529. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0

●    Morrison JJ, Dubose JJ, Rasmussen TE, Midwinter MJ. Military Application of Tranexamic Acid in Trauma Emergency Resuscitation (MATTERs) Study. Arch Surg. 2012 Feb;147(2):113-9. doi: 10.1001/archsurg.2011.287. Epub 2011 Oct 17. PMID: 22006852.

●    Roberts I, Shakur H, Coats T, Hunt B, Balogun E, Barnetson L, Cook L, Kawahara T, Perel P, Prieto-Merino D, Ramos M, Cairns J, Guerriero C. The CRASH-2 trial: a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of the effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events and transfusion requirement in bleeding trauma patients. Health Technol Assess. 2013 Mar;17(10):1-79. doi: 10.3310/hta17100. PMID: 23477634; PMCID: PMC4780956.

●    Roberts I, Perel P, Prieto-Merino D, Shakur H, Coats T, Hunt BJ, Lecky F, Brohi K, Willett K; CRASH-2 Collaborators. Effect of tranexamic acid on mortality in patients with traumatic bleeding: prespecified analysis of data from randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2012 Sep 11;345:e5839. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e5839. PMID: 22968527; PMCID: PMC3439642.

●    CRASH-2 collaborators, Roberts I, Shakur H, Afolabi A, Brohi K, Coats T, Dewan Y, Gando S, Guyatt G, Hunt BJ, Morales C, Perel P, Prieto-Merino D, Woolley T. The importance of early treatment with tranexamic acid in bleeding trauma patients: an exploratory analysis of the CRASH-2 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011 Mar 26;377(9771):1096-101, 1101.e1-2. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60278-X. PMID: 21439633.

Massive Transfusion Protocol

●    Baksaas-Aasen K, Gall LS, Stensballe J, Juffermans NP, Curry N, Maegele M, Brooks A, Rourke C, Gillespie S, Murphy J, Maroni R, Vulliamy P, Henriksen HH, Pedersen KH, Kolstadbraaten KM, Wirtz MR, Kleinveld DJB, Schäfer N, Chinna S, Davenport RA, Naess PA, Goslings JC, Eaglestone S, Stanworth S, Johansson PI, Gaarder C, Brohi K. Viscoelastic haemostatic assay augmented protocols for major trauma haemorrhage (ITACTIC): a randomized, controlled trial. Intensive Care Med. 2021 Jan;47(1):49-59. doi: 10.1007/s00134-020-06266-1. Epub 2020 Oct 13. PMID: 33048195; PMCID: PMC7550843.

●    Cannon JW, Dias JD, Kumar MA, Walsh M, Thomas SG, Cotton BA, Schuster JM, Evans SL, Schreiber MA, Adam EH, Zacharowski K, Hartmann J, Schöchl H, Kaplan LJ. Use of Thromboelastography in the Evaluation and Management of Patients With Traumatic Brain I

●    Consunji R, Elseed A, El-Menyar A, Sathian B, Rizoli S, Al-Thani H, Peralta R. The effect of massive transfusion protocol implementation on the survival of trauma patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Blood Transfus. 2020 Nov;18(6):434-445

●    Cohen J, Scorer T, Wright Z, Stewart IJ, Sosnov J, Pidcoke H, Fedyk C, Kwan H, Chung KK, Heegard K, White C, Cap A. A prospective evaluation of thromboelastometry (ROTEM) to identify acute traumatic coagulopathy and predict massive transfusion in mil

●    Nguyen M, Pirracchio R, Kornblith LZ, Callcut R, Fox EE, Wade CE, Schreiber M, Holcomb JB, Coyle J, Cohen M, Hubbard A. Dynamic impact of transfusion ratios on outcomes in severely injured patients: Targeted machine learning analysis of the Pragmatic

●    Udayachalerm S, Rattanasiri S, Angkananard T, Attia J, Sansanayudh N, Thakkinstian A. The Reversal of Bleeding Caused by New Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2018 Dec;24(9_suppl):117S-126S. 

●    Baksaas-Aasen K, Gall L, Eaglestone S, Rourke C, Juffermans NP, Goslings JC, Naess PA, van Dieren S, Ostrowski SR, Stensballe J, Maegele M, Stanworth SJ, Gaarder C, Brohi K, Johansson PI. iTACTIC – implementing Treatment Algorithms for the Correction

●   Jachetti A, Massénat RB, Edema N, Woolley SC, Benedetti G, Van Den Bergh R, Trelles M. Introduction of a standardised protocol, including systematic use of tranexamic acid, for management of severe adult trauma patients in a low-resource setting: the MSF experience from Port-au-Prince, Haiti. BMC Emerg Med. 2019 Oct 18;19(1):56. doi: 10.1186/s12873-019-0266-x. PMID: 31627715; PMCID: PMC6798378.

●    Meyer DE, Vincent LE, Fox EE, OʼKeeffe T, Inaba K, Bulger E, Holcomb JB, Cotton BA. Every minute counts: Time to delivery of initial massive transfusion cooler and its impact on mortality. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Jul;83(1):19-24. doi: 10.1097/

●    Innerhofer P, Fries D, Mittermayr M, Innerhofer N, von Langen D, Hell T, Gruber G, Schmid S, Friesenecker B, Lorenz IH, Ströhle M, Rastner V, Trübsbach S, Raab H, Treml B, Wally D, Treichl B, Mayr A, Kranewitter C, Oswald E. Reversal of trauma-induce

●    Gonzalez E, Moore EE, Moore HB, Chapman MP, Chin TL, Ghasabyan A, Wohlauer MV, Barnett CC, Bensard DD, Biffl WL, Burlew CC, Johnson JL, Pieracci FM, Jurkovich GJ, Banerjee A, Silliman CC, Sauaia A. Goal-directed Hemostatic Resuscitation of Trauma-ind

●    Baraniuk S, Tilley BC, del Junco DJ, Fox EE, van Belle G, Wade CE, Podbielski JM, Beeler AM, Hess JR, Bulger EM, Schreiber MA, Inaba K, Fabian TC, Kerby JD, Cohen MJ, Miller CN, Rizoli S, Scalea TM, O’Keeffe T, Brasel KJ, Cotton BA, Muskat P, Holcomb

●    Mitra B, O’Reilly G, Cameron PA, Zatta A, Gruen RL. Effectiveness of massive transfusion protocols on mortality in trauma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ANZ J Surg. 2013 Dec;83(12):918-23. doi: 10.1111/ans.12417. Epub 2013 Oct 21. PMID: 2414

●    Nascimento B, Callum J, Tien H, Rubenfeld G, Pinto R, Lin Y, Rizoli S. Effect of a fixed-ratio (1:1:1) transfusion protocol versus laboratory-results-guided transfusion in patients with severe trauma: a randomized feasibility trial. CMAJ. 2013 Sep 3;

●    Bhangu A, Nepogodiev D, Doughty H, Bowley DM. Meta-analysis of plasma to red blood cell ratios and mortality in massive blood transfusions for trauma. Injury. 2013 Dec;44(12):1693-9. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2012.07.193. Epub 2012 Sep 25. PMID: 23021369

●    Ley EJ, Clond MA, Srour MK, Barnajian M, Mirocha J, Margulies DR, Salim A. Emergency department crystalloid resuscitation of 1.5 L or more is associated with increased mortality in elderly and nonelderly trauma patients. J Trauma. 2011 Feb;70(2):398-400. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e318208f99b. PMID: 21307740.

●     Tapia NM, Chang A, Norman M, Welsh F, Scott B, Wall MJ Jr, Mattox KL, Suliburk J. TEG-guided resuscitation is superior to standardized MTP resuscitation in massively transfused penetrating trauma patients. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Feb;74(2):37

●     Matijevic N, Wang YW, Cotton BA, Hartwell E, Barbeau JM, Wade CE, Holcomb JB. Better hemostatic profiles of never-frozen liquid plasma compared with thawed fresh frozen plasma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Jan;74(1):84-90; discussion 90-1. doi: 10

●     Sperry JL, Guyette FX, Brown JB, Yazer MH, Triulzi DJ, Early-Young BJ, Adams PW, Daley BJ, Miller RS, Harbrecht BG, Claridge JA, Phelan HA, Witham WR, Putnam AT, Duane TM, Alarcon LH, Callaway CW, Zuckerbraun BS, Neal MD, Rosengart MR, Forsythe RM, 

●     Moore HB, Moore EE, Chapman MP, McVaney K, Bryskiewicz G, Blechar R, Chin T, Burlew CC, Pieracci F, West FB, Fleming CD, Ghasabyan A, Chandler J, Silliman CC, Banerjee A, Sauaia A. Plasma-first resuscitation to treat haemorrhagic shock during emerge

●     Baksaas-Aasen K, Gall LS, Stensballe J, Juffermans NP, Curry N, Maegele M, Brooks A, Rourke C, Gillespie S, Murphy J, Maroni R, Vulliamy P, Henriksen HH, Pedersen KH, Kolstadbraaten KM, Wirtz MR, Kleinveld DJB, Schäfer N, Chinna S, Davenport RA, Nae

Reversal of Anticoagulation

●    Shadvar K, Sadaghi P, Hamishekar H, Mahmoodpoor A. Efficacy of prothrombin complex concentrate for reversal of major bleeding due to rivaroxaban: A pilot randomized controlled trial. J Clin Anesth. 2021 Feb;68:110093. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2020.110

●    Rodrigues AO, David C, Ferreira JJ, Pinto FJ, Costa J, Caldeira D. The incidence of thrombotic events with idarucizumab and andexanet alfa: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Thromb Res. 2020 Dec;196:291-296. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2020.09.003. 

●    Alvikas J, Myers SP, Wessel CB, Okonkwo DO, Joseph B, Pelaez C, Doberstein C, Guillotte AR, Rosengart MR, Neal MD. A systematic review and meta-analysis of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients taking prehospital antiplatelet therapy: Is ther

●    Lu G, Conley PB, Leeds JM, Karbarz MJ, Levy GG, Mathur VS, Castillo J, Crowther M, Curnutte JT. A phase 2 PK/PD study of andexanet alfa for reversal of rivaroxaban and edoxaban anticoagulation in healthy volunteers. Blood Adv. 2020 Feb 25;4(4):728-73

●    Hill R, Han TS, Lubomirova I, Math N, Bentley P, Sharma P. Prothrombin Complex Concentrates are Superior to Fresh Frozen Plasma for Emergency Reversal of Vitamin K Antagonists: A Meta-Analysis in 2606 Subjects. Drugs. 2019 Sep;79(14):1557-1565. doi: 

●    Pan R, Cheng J, Lai K, Huang Q, Wu H, Tang Y. Efficacy and safety of prothrombin complex concentrate for vitamin K antagonist-associated intracranial hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurol Sci. 2019 Apr;40(4):813-827. doi: 10.1007/

●    DiRisio AC, Harary M, Muskens IS, Yunusa I, Gormley WB, Aglio LS, Smith TR, Connors JM, Mekary RA, Broekman MLD. Outcomes of intraparenchymal hemorrhage after direct oral anticoagulant or vitamin K antagonist therapy: A systematic review and meta-ana

●    Khatib R, Ludwikowska M, Witt DM, Ansell J, Clark NP, Holbrook A, Wiercioch W, Schünemann H, Nieuwlaat R. Vitamin K for reversal of excessive vitamin K antagonist anticoagulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Blood Adv. 2019 Mar 12;3(5):789

●    Piran S, Khatib R, Schulman S, Majeed A, Holbrook A, Witt DM, Wiercioch W, Schünemann HJ, Nieuwlaat R. Management of direct factor Xa inhibitor-related major bleeding with prothrombin complex concentrate: a meta-analysis. Blood Adv. 2019 Jan 22;3(2):

●    Connolly SJ, Crowther M, Eikelboom JW, Gibson CM, Curnutte JT, Lawrence JH, Yue P, Bronson MD, Lu G, Conley PB, Verhamme P, Schmidt J, Middeldorp S, Cohen AT, Beyer-Westendorf J, Albaladejo P, Lopez-Sendon J, Demchuk AM, Pallin DJ, Concha M, Goodman 

●    Song Y, Wang Z, Perlstein I, Wang J, LaCreta F, Frost RJA, Frost C. Reversal of apixaban anticoagulation by four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates in healthy subjects: a randomized three-period crossover study. J Thromb Haemost. 2017 Nov;15(11)

●   Brekelmans MPA, Ginkel KV, Daams JG, Hutten BA, Middeldorp S, Coppens M. Benefits and harms of 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for reversal of vitamin K antagonist associated bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Thromb Thromboly

●    da Luz LT, Marchand M, Nascimento B, Tien H, Nathens A, Shah P. Efficacy and safety of the drugs used to reverse direct oral anticoagulants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Transfusion. 2017 Jul;57(7):1834-1846. doi: 10.1111/trf.14096. Epub 20

●    Siegal DM, Curnutte JT, Connolly SJ, Lu G, Conley PB, Wiens BL, Mathur VS, Castillo J, Bronson MD, Leeds JM, Mar FA, Gold A, Crowther MA. Andexanet Alfa for the Reversal of Factor Xa Inhibitor Activity. N Engl J Med. 2015 Dec 17;373(25):2413-24. doi:

●    Brown KS, Wickremasingha P, Parasrampuria DA, Weiss D, Kochan J, Dishy V, He L, Shi M. The impact of a three-factor prothrombin complex concentrate on the anticoagulatory effects of the factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban. Thromb Res. 2015 Oct;136(4):825-31

●    Glund S, Stangier J, Schmohl M, Gansser D, Norris S, van Ryn J, Lang B, Ramael S, Moschetti V, Gruenenfelder F, Reilly P, Kreuzer J. Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of idarucizumab for the reversal of the anticoagulant effect of dabigatran in heal

●    Levi M, Moore KT, Castillejos CF, Kubitza D, Berkowitz SD, Goldhaber SZ, Raghoebar M, Patel MR, Weitz JI, Levy JH. Comparison of three-factor and four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates regarding reversal of the anticoagulant effects of rivaroxa

●    Sarode R, Milling TJ Jr, Refaai MA, Mangione A, Schneider A, Durn BL, Goldstein JN. Efficacy and safety of a 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate in patients on vitamin K antagonists presenting with major bleeding: a randomized, plasma-controlled

●    Eerenberg ES, Kamphuisen PW, Sijpkens MK, Meijers JC, Buller HR, Levi M. Reversal of rivaroxaban and dabigatran by prothrombin complex concentrate: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy subjects. Circulation. 2011 Oct 4;124(14)

Osmotherapy in TBI

●    Rameshkumar R, Bansal A, Singhi S, Singhi P, Jayashree M. Randomized Clinical Trial of 20% Mannitol Versus 3% Hypertonic Saline in Children With Raised Intracranial Pressure Due to Acute CNS Infections. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2020 Dec;21(12):1071-108

●    Huang X, Yang L, Ye J, He S, Wang B. Equimolar doses of hypertonic agents (saline or mannitol) in the treatment of intracranial hypertension after severe traumatic brain injury. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Sep 18;99(38):e22004. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000

●    Narayan SW, Castelino R, Hammond N, Patanwala AE. Effect of mannitol plus hypertonic saline combination versus hypertonic saline monotherapy on acute kidney injury after traumatic brain injury. J Crit Care. 2020 Jun;57:220-224. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.20

●    Chen H, Song Z, Dennis JA. Hypertonic saline versus other intracranial pressure-lowering agents for people with acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jan 17;1(1):CD010904. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010904.pub3. PMID: 31978260; 

●    Zhang W, Neal J, Lin L, Dai F, Hersey DP, McDonagh DL, Su F, Meng L. Mannitol in Critical Care and Surgery Over 50+ Years: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials and Complications With Meta-Analysis. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2019 Jul;31(

●    Kumar SA, Devi BI, Reddy M, Shukla D. Comparison of equiosmolar dose of hyperosmolar agents in reducing intracranial pressure-a randomized control study in pediatric traumatic brain injury. Childs Nerv Syst. 2019 Jun;35(6):999-1005. doi: 10.1007/s003

●    Patil H, Gupta R. A Comparative Study of Bolus Dose of Hypertonic Saline, Mannitol, and Mannitol Plus Glycerol Combination in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. World Neurosurg. 2019 May;125:e221-e228. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.01.051. Epub 

●    Jagannatha AT, Sriganesh K, Devi BI, Rao GS. An equiosmolar study on early intracranial physiology and long term outcome in severe traumatic brain injury comparing mannitol and hypertonic saline. J Clin Neurosci. 2016 May;27:68-73. doi: 10.1016/j.joc

●    Mangat HS, Chiu YL, Gerber LM, Alimi M, Ghajar J, Härtl R. Hypertonic saline reduces cumulative and daily intracranial pressure burdens after severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg. 2015 Jan;122(1):202-10. doi: 10.3171/2014.10.JNS132545. Erratum 

●    Rickard AC, Smith JE, Newell P, Bailey A, Kehoe A, Mann C. Salt or sugar for your injured brain? A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of mannitol versus hypertonic sodium solutions to manage raised intracranial pressure in traumatic brain 

●    Cottenceau V, Masson F, Mahamid E, Petit L, Shik V, Sztark F, Zaaroor M, Soustiel JF. Comparison of effects of equiosmolar doses of mannitol and hypertonic saline on cerebral blood flow and metabolism in traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2011 Oc

Antimicrobial Prophylaxis

– Open Fractures

●    Russell GV Jr, King C, May CG, Pearsall AW 4th. Once daily high-dose gentamicin to prevent infection in open fractures of the tibial shaft: a preliminary investigation. South Med J. 2001 Dec;94(12):1185-91. PMID: 11811857.

●    Sorger JI, Kirk PG, Ruhnke CJ, Bjornson SH, Levy MS, Cockrin J, Tang P. Once daily, high dose versus divided, low dose gentamicin for open fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999 Sep;(366):197-204. doi: 10.1097/00003086-199909000-00026. PMID: 10627736

●    Patzakis MJ, Bains RS, Lee J, Shepherd L, Singer G, Ressler R, Harvey F, Holtom P. Prospective, randomized, double-blind study comparing single-agent antibiotic therapy, ciprofloxacin, to combination antibiotic therapy in open fracture wounds. J Orth

●    Vasenius J, Tulikoura I, Vainionpää S, Rokkanen P. Clindamycin versus cloxacillin in the treatment of 240 open fractures. A randomized prospective study. Ann Chir Gynaecol. 1998;87(3):224-8. PMID: 9825068.

– Penetrating Abdominal Trauma

●    Kirton OC, O’Neill PA, Kestner M, Tortella BJ. Perioperative antibiotic use in high-risk penetrating hollow viscus injury: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-control trial of 24 hours versus 5 days. J Trauma. 2000 Nov;49(5):822-32. doi: 

●    Sims EH, Lou MA, Williams SW, Ganesan N, Thadepalli H. Piperacillin monotherapy compared with metronidazole and gentamicin combination in penetrating abdominal trauma. J Trauma. 1993 Feb;34(2):205-10. doi: 10.1097/00005373-199302000-00004. PMID: 8459

●    Demetriades D, Lakhoo M, Pezikis A, Charalambides D, Pantanowitz D, Sofianos C. Short-course antibiotic prophylaxis in penetrating abdominal injuries: ceftriaxone versus cefoxitin. Injury. 1991 Jan;22(1):20-4. doi: 10.1016/0020-1383(91)90154-7. PMID:

●    Heseltine PN, Berne TV, Yellin AE, Gill MA, Appleman MD. The efficacy of cefoxitin vs. clindamycin/gentamicin in surgically treated stab wounds of the bowel. J Trauma. 1986 Mar;26(3):241-5. doi: 10.1097/00005373-198603000-00005. PMID: 3951003.

●    Hofstetter SR, Pachter HL, Bailey AA, Coppa GF. A prospective comparison of two regimens of prophylactic antibiotics in abdominal trauma: cefoxitin versus triple drug. J Trauma. 1984 Apr;24(4):307-10. doi: 10.1097/00005373-198404000-00004. PMID: 6368

– Tube Thoracostomy

●    Bosman A, de Jong MB, Debeij J, van den Broek PJ, Schipper IB. Systematic review and meta-analysis of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infections from chest drains in blunt and penetrating thoracic injuries. Br J Surg. 2012 Apr;99(4):506-13. doi: 10

●    Sanabria A, Valdivieso E, Gomez G, Echeverry G. Prophylactic antibiotics in chest trauma: a meta-analysis of high-quality studies. World J Surg. 2006 Oct;30(10):1843-7. doi: 10.1007/s00268-005-0672-y. PMID: 16983475.


Review Articles

●    Faraoni D, Van Der Linden P. A systematic review of antifibrinolytics and massive injury. Minerva Anestesiol. 2014 Oct;80(10):1115-22. Epub 2013 Nov 28. PMID: 24287671.

●    Jennings LK, Watson S. Massive Transfusion. 2020 Sep 19. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan–. PMID: 29763104.

●    Meneses E, Boneva D, McKenney M, Elkbuli A. Massive transfusion protocol in adult trauma population. Am J Emerg Med. 2020 Dec;38(12):2661-2666. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2020.07.041. Epub 2020 Jul 22. PMID: 33071074.

●    Maegele M. Challenges to improving patient outcome following massive transfusion in severe trauma. Expert Rev Hematol. 2020 Apr;13(4):323-330. doi: 10.1080/17474086.2020.1733404. Epub 2020 Feb 26. PMID: 32075445.

●    Walsh M, Fries D, Moore E, Moore H, Thomas S, Kwaan HC, Marsee MK, Grisoli A, McCauley R, Vande Lune S, Chitta S, Vyakaranam S, Waxman D, McCurdy MT, Zimmer D, Patel B, Thachil J. Whole Blood for Civilian Urban Trauma Resuscitation: Historical, Prese

●    Abuzeid AM, O’Keeffe T. Review of massive transfusion protocols in the injured, bleeding patient. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2019 Dec;25(6):661-667. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000668. PMID: 31574016.

●    Ditzel RM Jr, Anderson JL, Eisenhart WJ, Rankin CJ, DeFeo DR, Oak S, Siegler J. A review of transfusion- and trauma-induced hypocalcemia: Is it time to change the lethal triad to the lethal diamond? J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2020 Mar;88(3):434-439. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000002570. PMID: 31876689.


Podcasts & Medical Blogs

●    https://emcrit.org/emcrit/logistics-administration-massive-transfusion/

●    https://emcrit.org/emcrit/massive-trans/

●    https://emcrit.org/pulmcrit/mtp/

●    https://emcrit.org/emcrit/massive-transfusion-kenji/

●    https://emcrit.org/ibcc/mtp/

●    https://emcrit.org/emcrit/severe-trauma-karim-brohi/

●    https://emcrit.org/emcrit/calcium-massive-transfusion/

●    https://emcrit.org/emcrit/proppr/

●    https://emcrit.org/emcrit/emcrit-278-labors-of-trauma-blunt-edition-part-1/

●    https://emcrit.org/emcrit/trauma-resus-part-i/

●    https://emcrit.org/emcrit/tranexamic-acid-trauma/

●    https://emcrit.org/ibcc/coag/

●    https://emcrit.org/ibcc/reverse/

●    https://rebelem.com/ten-trauma-resuscitation-commandments/

●    https://rebelem.com/rebel-cast-ep60-combat-and-pamper-prehospital-plasma-in-trauma/

●    https://rebelem.com/first-do-no-harm-rethinking-our-approach-to-intubation-in-trauma/

●    https://rebelem.com/etomidate-vs-ketamine-in-trauma-rsi/

●    https://rebelem.com/rebel-core-cast-17-0-penetrating-neck-trauma/

●    https://rebelem.com/tranexamic-acid-txa-for-everything-that-bleeds/

●    https://rebelem.com/avert-shock-vasopressin-for-acute-hemorrhage/

●    https://rebelem.com/rebel-cast-ep94-the-itactic-trial-viscoelastic-hemostatic-assay-augmented-protocols/

●    https://rebelem.com/im-administration-of-tranexamic-acid/

●    https://www.theresusroom.co.uk/shock-in-trauma/

●    https://www.theresusroom.co.uk/top-10-trauma-papers-2018/

●    https://www.theresusroom.co.uk/trauma-care-2018/

●    https://www.theresusroom.co.uk/traumatic-arrest/

●    https://www.theresusroom.co.uk/trauma-in-ed-17/

●    https://www.theresusroom.co.uk/cxr-in-blunt-trauma/

●    https://www.theresusroom.co.uk/trauma-in-the-ed/

●    https://www.theresusroom.co.uk/major-trauma-nice-guideline-2016-2/

●    https://www.theresusroom.co.uk/courses/crash-3/

●    https://www.thesgem.com/2017/04/sgem-xtra-talk-trauma-2017-tales-from-the-outer-rim/

●    https://www.thesgem.com/2016/03/sgem150-hypertonic-saline-for-traumatic-brain-injury/

●    https://www.thesgem.com/2019/10/sgem270-crash-3-txa-for-traumatic-head-bleeds/

●    https://www.thebottomline.org.uk/summaries/icm/itactic/

●    https://www.thebottomline.org.uk/summaries/propanalol-in-severe-tbi/

●    https://www.thebottomline.org.uk/summaries/crash-3/

●    https://litfl.com/major-haemorrhage-in-trauma/

●    https://litfl.com/refractory-shock-in-trauma/

●    https://litfl.com/trauma-literature-summaries/

●    https://litfl.com/surviving-trauma-rsi/

●    https://litfl.com/trauma-library/

●    https://pharm-so-hard.com/2020/01/21/episode-14-the-role-of-an-ed-pharmacist-as-part-of-the-trauma-team/

●    https://pharm-so-hard.com/2021/01/22/episode-30-hypocalcemia-resulting-from-trauma-blood-product-transfusion/

●    https://pharm-so-hard.com/2021/06/18/41/